A transformer is really a static machine utilized for transforming power in one circuit to another one without changing frequency. This is a simple concise explanation of transformer. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is really a static device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works about the principle of mutual induction.
If we wish to know the reputation of transformer we certainly have return long from the 1880s. Around fifty years before that in 1830 property of induction the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved contributing to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the larger capacity of electrical transformers in the plethora of several KVA, MVA came into existence. During 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In early 1970s, unit rating the size of 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and even higher KV class transformers were produced in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power might be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted brings about greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut when the voltage amount of an electrical is increased, the existing in the power is reduced which causes decline in ohmic or I2R losses in the system, decrease in cross sectional section of the conductor i.e. decline in capital expense of the device plus it improves the voltage regulation of the device. As a consequence of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by step-up transformer with the sending side of your power system network. As this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to the desired level in the receiving end by using step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays an important role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are often used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It really is affordable to use auto transformer the location where the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is lower than 2. Again one particular unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost effective than a bank of three power transformer in a three phase system. But an individual three phase transformer unit is a bit hard to transport and have to be pulled from service entirely if among the phase winding breaks down.
Kinds of Transformer
Transformers could be categorized in different ways, based upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The kinds of transformer are listed below,
Step-up Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally employed for stepping down and up the voltage amount of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is normally utilized in three phase power system because it is affordable than later. However, when size matters, it is preferable to employ a bank of three single phase transformer because it is much easier to transport than one single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are generally employed in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps on the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It provides good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs per day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are widely used to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It can be cost effective to use later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is lower than 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers intended for installing at indoor are furnace transformer.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it has two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in shape having a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are put for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It comes with a central limb and two outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are positioned on the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is there.
Berry type transformer: The core seems like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this type of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.