“Time is definitely the fire we burn in.” And even though we might not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Air separation equipment is a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe within the eons in the future.
For many who seek to discover truths concerning the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are often enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that take place at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties can be exploited is akin to the problem of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you answer to the situation from the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity comes to a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments soon enough, returning repeatedly to analyze that instant in history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics is becoming an essential industry which makes customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in every single size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products to choose from knowledge of the ones that are most efficient may elude the typical consumer. So that you can provide an introduction to the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are among those things that the majority of people never take into consideration until they quit working. Created to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists try to avoid the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory throughout the day whenever it did. A career’s amount of samples might be lost in a single afternoon– years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Despite the fact that this kind of scenario looms ominously inside the periphery of each and every researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for a day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. Even though the natural gas industry provides this system for years, MMR Technologies was the very first company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact an assortment of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is permitted to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and also the cool gas passes back up the heat exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated within the cycle in order that the expansion of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 can be a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The unit allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as it offers an internal power source you can use it for the transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“Being a user you wish to are aware of the minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling helps to ensure that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for prolonged periods. Locking lids are offered as a way to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a lot of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to perform longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples below the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special mix of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and permit on-site recycling. Additionally, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every twenty four hours, turning it away in order that the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of producing ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with four decades of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. As soon as the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the brand new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. Together with its investigation of green refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed an innovative compressor that is designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units rather than the standard cylindrical containers. Each of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to fit a selection of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than fifty years of experience in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be found in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. It also has a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than 2 decades, starting with its creation of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to provide a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The expression dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now placed on a wide range of insulated vessels intended for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on the ground or sit down on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that 1 year without getting regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The common thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich loaded with polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that many companies build custom dewars to acquire. A few of these companies in addition to their merchandise is reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for numerous types of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are just a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large component of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing portion of the niche for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to formulate biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the entire type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells which can be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also helpful for storing hazardous materials that might cross-communicate in the liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags that are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has managed to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is because they could be custom-designed.
One among Quantum Technology’s most favored products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in several countries beyond North America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is among the factors why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained from the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified to be used repeatedly.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask type of items that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six the latest models of are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models can be obtained with a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to stop pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to supply coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by a variety of companies throughout the usa. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and give features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be found in four sizes and also have capacities of up to 6,000 vials. Together with some of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, along with an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates exposure to liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made of borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model carries a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suited for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times greater than 14 days. Most of these units come designed with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to keep large amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which was designed to maximize the volume of vials that can be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most commonly used and least considered implements inside the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the 1st of which concerns the challenge of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents in the internally threaded sort argue that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and the debate proceeds.
An additional consideration which comes into consideration when choosing cryogenic tubes is the material from where these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take more time to warm which might negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be taken off using the proper care, and a few businesses like Axygen are looking at new polished molds which do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but is likewise at the mercy of fracture as a result of microchannels which could form in the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has been specifically a challenge of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials are equipped with a washer that keeps the internal pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas throughout the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid with the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it has a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, an issue that had been demonstrated once the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Created for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come designed with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip as well as a silicon washer. A unique ridge on each cap makes handling easier, leading to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be bought in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also provides a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, that may be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to guarantee the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. It is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding options that come with this tube is that it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a range of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for usage in a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and therefore are certified to be sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, whilst the System 100 vials are guaranteed to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge up to 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it has developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are typically suitable for that preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like each of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction means they are exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored using a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with a variety of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and easy-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. All of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be constructed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added limited to the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials was designed to snap closed within a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports create the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned within the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. comes with an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are right for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in a big selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The person has the choice of selecting from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. Each one of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material from where they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its type of products is the need for cryogenic vials that contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes might be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes is sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical element of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes that will make them hard to keep trace. Labels can be brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the most popular strategies for containing samples may be the canister and cane. Employing this technique, several vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer technique is usually preferred. Although drawer systems tend to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility in the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation in the freezer, and also decreases the researcher’s being exposed to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the quantity of storage space afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or stainless construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to organize up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be purchased in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to suit just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to get viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in some models to accommodate tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. They are keyed to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for easy retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids in order to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In reality, several of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are constructed from stainless steel and may include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be acquired as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today will be the same ones which will be used for many years. A purchase made today may work for a decade. In effect, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not just buying products for their own reasons, they are buying with regard to their successors. The buyer should consider what might 46dexkpky throughout years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A little money that was saved at the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers may not appear to be the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards internal to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these products a high priority. Appointing a permanent position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is among the ideal way to assure the integrity of those samples.